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Who are the Vanuatu?

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Oceania’s Vanuatu is an island nation without traffic lights, street postal service, or even a McDonalds! What it lacks in 21st-century amenities, it makes up for with traditional culture. Vanuatu hosts some of the most remote and untouched bush tribes in the world, and is home to over 100 different indigenous tribes, each with its own distinct language, customs, and traditions. These tribes have managed to preserve their unique identities throughout centuries, even in the face of modernization. The sheer diversity of these tribes adds to the cultural richness of this Pacific nation.

Some 80% of people live in rural areas, mostly in small clan-based villages of less than 50 people and headed by a chief. The chief speaks for his village, and his word is considered as law. The majority of villages have a traditional nakamal (village clubhouse or clan hut) where the men gather to discuss issues that affect the community and drink kava. Places that are tabu (sacred, holy, or forbidden) should always be treated with respect by visitors.


Vanuatu is recognised as one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. Dances, ceremonies, status and systems of authority, artistic styles, animal and crop husbandry can vary from island to island, and often from district to district. These cultural traditions are known as kastom. This living heritage is passed down through generations and remains a vital part of daily life.

Land Diving

From April to June, Pentecost Island hosts the well-known Land-Diving ceremony to commemorate the yam harvest. With vines tied to their ankles, men and boys jump from wooden towers with vines tied to their ankles, in an effort to ensure a plentiful harvest the following year. The yam harvest is celebrated with great pomp and the size and quality of the yams are a source of pride for each tribe. Yams are exchanged as gifts during important ceremonies, reinforcing social bonds among tribes.


Traditional rites continue to be an important aspect of village life in kastom-oriented communities. Taking 'grades' through the nimangki system is how status and power are acquired. Men display their wealth through elaborate rituals that include feasting, dancing, and pig sacrifices.

The Nekowiar is a spectacular three-day gift-exchanging ceremony held on the island of Tanna where up to 2000 participants compete to outdo one another with extravagant gifts, dancing, and elaborate make-up. Another impressive ceremony for awarding grades is the Rom Dance in Ambrym. Dancers are covered in a cloak made of banana leaves and tall, conical masks.

Challenges in a Globalized World

Globalization, climate change, and external influences pose threats to the Vanuatu’s traditional way of life. However, the resilience of these tribes is evident in their efforts to adapt while preserving their unique identities. Initiatives to promote sustainable tourism and cultural preservation are helping to safeguard Vanuatu's cultural heritage for future generations.

Visit Us and Learn More!

Did you know that our Tribes Frankfurt Baseler location is inspired by the people of Vanuatu? Visit us to learn more about the beautiful culture and traditions of the Vanuatu and to see the inspiring workspaces available!

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